(From dogma: L. dogma, the basic tenet of a doctrine). Mode of thinking that accepts certain opinions, doctrines and norms as unconditional postulates or principles, valid under any circumstance and accepted without criticism or rational judgment. It closes off the path to acquiring new knowledge and introducing innovations. It is characteristic of a narrow religious consciousness that upholds traditionalism and conservatism. The struggle against d. facilitates the free development of science and the spread of knowledge concerning nature and society. D. has always been and continues to be an obstacle to spiritual and social progress, ultimately leading to the objectification of the culture, to its isolation and destructing. Humanism developed historically in the resolute struggle against medieval d., introducing and putting into practice momentous cultural innovations. The universalist, open and creative spirit of N.H. carries forward in today’s world the struggle against all d., which artificially limits the creative capacities of human beings.