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Extension and generalization of ecological concepts, transferring them into the realm of social reality. Emerging in the 1960s from movements advocating the protection of nature and the environment, e. involves an awareness of the disconnection or rupture between human beings and their natural environment, a rupture caused by an industrial civilization that contaminates, destroys, or exhausts non-renewable resources, and threatens the very survival of the species. E. declares the urgent need for forms of development that are in balance with nature, based on utilizing renewable and non-polluting energy sources. Implementing e. will only be possible through a maximum decentralization of the centers of decision-making and the application of measures for self-governance that allow each person to feel fully responsible for their future.