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(From L. fides, faith). A belief that is not based on rational argument. Acceptance of or agreement with words or statements based on the authority or reputation of their source; confidence, assurance that a thing is true. F. is a characteristic of individual and social consciousness. The psychological state of a subject, expressed in ideas and images, that serves as motivation and orientation in practical activity is also regarded as f. Different theories of f. can be identified: emotional ones (which interpret f. as an emotion), sensual-intellectual ones (f. as a phenomenon of the intellect), and voluntarist ones (f. as an attribute of the will). Religious f. is a special sphere of f. N.H. distinguishes between fanatical f. (which is expressed destructively), naive f. (which can endanger a person’s vital interests), and f. that serves to open up the future and advance constructive goals in life.