I. and the various internationalist doctrines recognize important distinctions among themselves, involving on occasion positions irreconcilably opposed, as in the case of the concepts of internationalist imperialism (globalization) and internationalist N.H. (*planetarization). Since Antiquity, empires have sacrificed local and regional realities on the altar of i. In the West, the Germanic Holy Roman Empire opposed the remnants of feudalism with a broader concept, which could be characterized as having an “internationalist” orientation. Later, and especially following the American and French Revolutions, the idea of the nation state took shape based on a defined territory, a single language and a certain cultural homogeneity, while subjugating the local realities of the State’s internal regions and towns. Subsequently, a number of socialist movements based their i. on the cooperation of the proletariat, independent of national identity. N.H. is internationalist, on condition that cultural and regional diversity are respected. It establishes its i. specifically on the “convergence of diversity toward a universal human nation.” N.H. encourages the creation of regional federations as well as a world confederation based on a system of real democracy. I. is a position opposed to nationalism (*). It emphasizes a determining reality greater than that of the nation state, a reality in which societies will begin to experience and comprehend the current existence of an oppressive global system that needs to be changed. As imperialist i. advances and progressively eliminates the nation state, inequality , discrimination and exploitation will increase, but we will also see in the concentration of imperialist power the growth of disorder that will lead to generalized chaos. In this emergency, internationalists will identify their interests with those of all humanity, which is suffering the effects of this single, globalized system.