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(from L. manipulus, to handle with the hand). Action and effect of deceiving or applying moral coercion. System of psychological pressure to apply duress to the behavior of others. The methodology of m. is quite varied and runs from exploitation of the most fundamental human necessities and most irrational fears to the creation of illusory expectations generated within a system without choices. The use of mass media (press, radio, TV, film, etc.) always has the character of m. when the people have no option to interact with them. At the present time, limitations on m. by the media are provided by rating systems, but this in turn is frequently manipulated in various ways. N.H. considers m. an inhumane practice that violates freedom of choice.